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Nationality/school
German, English
Born
Prague 1619-12-27
Rupert was born under a calendar of the old style: therefore his brith-date is sometimes given as 17 December (Rebitsch 2005, p. 14-15, & note 18)
Deceased
London (England) 1682-11-29
buried in Westminster Abbey
Family relationships
this field records any family relationship to one or more other artist(s).
third son of Frederic V, Elector Palatine, King of Bohemia (the Winterking'') and Elisabeth Stuart, the Princess Royal (daughter of James I), nephew of Charles I
See also
In this field, you will find references to names of groups or to the artists that made/make up groups. You may also come across references to other artists if there was/is question of collaboration without a joint name. This is the case, for instance, with artists who rendered parts of works by other artists (such as with P.P Rubens and J. Brueghel I).
This person/entity in other databases
Biographical information
Active in
  • Praag 1619 - 1622
  • Küstrin (Niederschlesien) 1622
    After fleeing from Prague, the first shelter the family got was from the (reluctant) Elector of Brandenburg in Küstrin (Rebitsch 2005).
  • Leiden 1622
    Although his parents lived in The Hague and later in Rhenen, the children were raised in a house in Leiden on the Rapenburg, opposite the University. When the Palatine was permanently taken by the Duke of Bavaria in 1622 the exile of the family became permanent (Rebitsch 2005).
  • Den Haag 1622
    Although living in Leiden, Rupert frequently stayed in The Hague, a.o. for painting lessons from Gerard van Honthorst (Wedgwood 1961, p. 158). He quickly became an adult when his father died on 29 November 1632. As a noble without a country he was destined for a militairy career (Rebitsch 2005).
  • Maastricht 1632-08
    As a young man he witnessed the dramatic taking of the city of Maastricht by the Dutch, and Frederic Henry of Orange-Nassau, 17-21 August 1632
  • Rheinsberg 1633
    Rupert got his Initiation into battle during the siege of Rheinsberg in Westphalia, when he participated in the conquering of this city under the command of Frederic Henry of Orange-Nassau, who from now on took him under his wings (Rebitsch 2005, p. 20-21, Kitson 1998, p. 43-45)
  • Den Haag 1634
    witnessed the triumphant return of Frederic Henry of Orange-Nassau
  • Leiden 1634 - 1635
    Finished his studies in Leiden
  • Den Haag 1635
    Member of the personal guard of Frederic Henry of Orange-Nassau (Kitson 1998, p. 46-48)
  • Londen (Engeland) 1636 - 1637-06
    First trip to his family in Whitehall with his brother Carl Ludwig. Rupert quickly became a court favorite, especially with Queen Henrietta Maria. Carl Ludwig on the other hand distanced himself from the frivolous court and got especially engaged to the Flemish and Dutch artist at Court. During this trip the famous double portrait by Van Dyck was conceived (RKDimages 120671) (Rebitsch 2005, p. 22).
  • Den Haag 1637-06-26
    Rebitsch 2005, p. 23
  • Breda 1637
    participated under Frederic Henry in the recapturing of Breda (June 21 till October 11)
  • Vlotho 1638-10-08
    While under the command of his brother Carl Ludwig he participated in a militairy operation to free Lemgo: during this operation he was made a prisoner by the Imperial forces on 8 October 1638 near Vlotho and transferred to castle Linz in Austria (Kitson 1998, p. 51-61; Rebitsch 2005, p. 24-25).
  • Linz (Oostenrijk) 1638 - 1641-11
    As he had given his word as a nobleman not to flee, he was put under light surveilance. This is a time of lots of outdoor sports, hunting and pleasure. He was frequently visited by archduke Leopold Wilhelm, who became a personal friend. It was in linz that he was introduced to engraving. Eventually his release was negotiated on behalf of Charles I, on the instigation of Henrietta Maria, by the Earl of Arundel (Rebitsch 2005, p. 24-25).
  • Wenen 1641-11-06 - 1641-11
    Received by the Emperor on 6 November. At his release he had to swear that he would never again in his life wage war against Habsburg. This limited his professional posibilities as a soldier for the rest of his life (Rebitsch 2005, p. 24-25).
  • Den Haag 1641-12
    He left Vienna on 25 November and arrived in The Hague at the end of December (Rebitsch 2005, p. 26-27).
  • Nottingham 1642-10
    As member of the English Royal Family he got the assignment as General of the Horse. He left The Hague on a ship of Frederic Henry and landed in England in October. For the next 8 years he would participate in the English Civil War on the side of the king against Parliament (Kitson 1998, p. 83-87, Rebitsch 2005, p. 7-30).
  • Worcester (Engeland) 1642-09-23
    First 'Battle'and Royalist triumph during the skirmish near Powick Bridge. Rupert contributed significantly to this dashing victory, where he stood out through his flashy clothes.
  • Edge Hill (Warwickshire) 1642-10-23
    The Battle of Edgehill (or Edge Hill) was the first pitched battle of the First English Civil War. It was fought near Edge Hill and Kineton in southern Warwickshire on Sunday, 23 October 1642 (Rebitsch 2005, p. 32).
  • Banbury (Warwickshire) 1642-10-27
    the city of Banbury taken
  • Oxford (Engeland) 1642-11 - 1645
    Oxford was the place of Charles I's court away from London. Rupert became a very influencial member of the Royal family, but was detested by many officers and nobles. Never a very tactful man, he stood out through his Stuart impetuosity and arrogance. With Oxford as his base he participated in several other battles in the Civil War.
  • Cirencester 1643-02 - 1643
    The English Civil War came to Cirencester in February 1643 when Royalists and Parliamentarians came to blows in the streets. Over 300 were killed, and 1,200 prisoners were held captive in the church. The townsfolk supported the Parliamentarians but gentry and clergy were in favour of the old order.
  • Birmingham (Groot-Brittannië) 1643
  • Lichfield (Engeland) 1643-03 - 1644
  • Bristol (Engeland) 1644
  • Newark on Trent (Nottinghamshire) 1644-03
  • Oxford (Engeland) 1644-04-25 - 1644-05-05
  • Marston (Lincolnshire) 1644-07-02
    Decisive battle, where Parliament gained controle over thewhole of Northern England. Rupert still kept his uncle's faith, who named him in November 'Lieutenant-General of the King's Armies' (Rebitsch 2005, p. 36-38).
  • Leicester 1645-05
    Rupert took Leicester, but the city was again lost on 18 June to Parliament.
  • Northamptonshire (graafschap) 1645-06-14
    The Battle of Naseby was the decisive battle in the first Civil war, where Charles I was utterly defeated. Rupert, who had not wanted to give battle, lost almost all his officers and his horses.
  • Bristol (Engeland) 1645-09-12
    Rupert retreated to Bristol (the last harbour for the Royalist cause) with the order to keep it till the last man. He had to surrendere the city to Fairfax, as he did not receive any relief. It meant however the end of his participation in the war, as his angry uncle ungratiously fired him on September 14. Despite a court martial, that Rupert demanded, and during which he was exonorated, his uncle did not forgive him the 'unhandsome quitting of the castle and Fort of Bristol' till just before his death. King and (Oxford) Parliament now demanded his departure. Rupert left eventually in July 1646, heading Parliament's 'most wanted' list with his brother Maurice (Rebitsch 2005, p. 39-40).
  • Frankrijk 1646-07 - 1648
  • Hellevoetsluis 1648-07
    When part of the British Navy rebelled against parliament, several ships left England and went to Hellevoetsluis and joined the Prince of Wales in The Hague. Charles named his cousin Rupert as his vice-admiral (his brother James, Duke of York, was nominally Lord High Admiral) The first actions of this fleet were fruitless, mostly because Rupert and the advisers of the Prince of Wales constantly quarreled. On 1 september 1948 the fleet was back in Hellevoetsluis without accomplishing anything . When the Parliament's Navy appeared before Hellevoetsluis, the Dutch navy blocked hostilities between the two English fleets. Rupert meanwhile accomplished miracles of logistic by keeping the fleet fed and ready to sail (Rebitsch 2005, p. 46-47).
  • Ierland 1648
    Rupert was ordered to go to Ireland with the fleet and help the Duke of Ormonde to secure the island for the royalist cause; he also used the fleet for privateering: with the prizes he sunsidized the cause and the upkeep of the fleet. But by now his resources in men, ships and money were running so low, that he could do little to secure the island, although the Duke of Ormonde ordered him to blockade Dublin to prevent Cromwell from taking the city. This proved impossible, and he had to retreat to Kinsale, on the south coast of Munster.
  • Londen (Engeland) 1660 - 1682
    as private secretary to king Charles II; introduced the technique of the mezzotint
born in
active in
died in
Subjects
This field specifies the various subject categories or genres that constitute the oeuvre of the artist in question. The contents of this field are generally based more on the documentation available at the RKD than on the literature.
Christian religious scene, portrait
Creation date: 1992-02-07; Last modified date: 2021-06-14

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