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Rembrandt and studio of Rembrandt

Self portrait with a velvet beret and gold chain, tussen 1633 en 1636
Berlin, Gemäldegalerie (Staatliche Museen zu [..]
Bredius 1935, no. 23
<a class="recordlink artists" href="/explore/artists/66219" title="Rembrandt"><span class="text">Rembrandt</span></a> and studio of <a class="recordlink artists" href="/explore/artists/66219" title="Rembrandt"><span class="text">Rembrandt</span></a>
Illustration number 0001504199
Dimensions: 12393x14656 pixels
License under CC BY-NC-SA by copyright: Gemäldegalerie (Staatliche Museen zu Berlin); created by Christoph Schmidt
<a class="recordlink artists" href="/explore/artists/66219" title="Rembrandt"><span class="text">Rembrandt</span></a> and studio of <a class="recordlink artists" href="/explore/artists/66219" title="Rembrandt"><span class="text">Rembrandt</span></a>
Illustration number 0000271067
Dimensions: 555x650 pixels
License undetermined
<a class="recordlink artists" href="/explore/artists/66219" title="Rembrandt"><span class="text">Rembrandt</span></a> and studio of <a class="recordlink artists" href="/explore/artists/66219" title="Rembrandt"><span class="text">Rembrandt</span></a>
Illustration number 0000063116
Dimensions: 1848x2168 pixels
License undetermined
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Object information
Object category
painting
Support/medium
panel (oak), oil paint
Shape/dimensions
rectangle (portrait format) 56 x 47 cm
Signature/inscription
Information about the signature, dating, inscription or any other mark on the front or back of the art work
  • seal on the back: Königliche Museen Berlin
    red seal with the Prussian eagle and the inscription "Königliche Museen Berlin" recessed in a drill hole with a diameter of 3.5 cm (in use approx. 1877-1918)
  • label on the back: N [o] 19./Rembrandt Vanryn/Le portrait de L’auteur
    yellowed paper, 5.6 x 8.6 cm, severely torn along the edges as well as on the inside. Quill and black ink handwritten in both Sütterlin and Latin characters
  • label on the back: Staatliche Museen Berlin – Gemäldegalerie/Inv.-Nr.I/900/Kat.Nr. 808/Selbstbildnis mit Metallkragen
    blank form and handwriting in black ink
  • label on the back: Staatliche Museen Berlin/Gemäldegalerie Kat.Nr. 808/Rembrandt/Selbstbildnis
    blank form filled out with typewriter
  • label on the back: Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz/Gemäldegalerie Berlin/Kat.Nr. 808/Flinck, Govaert/Bildnis Rembrandt
    blank form filled out with typewriter, with border and diagonal line
  • stamp (mark) on the back: I. 900
    inventory number of 1833
Current attribution
Rembrandt
and studio of Rembrandt
Since the first time the painting was recorded in catalogue of the Gemäldegalerie in 1830, the work has always been accepted as an authentic self-portrait by Rembrandt in the art historical literature (Waagen 1830, no. II/335). In 1986 this attribution was questioned by the Rembrandt Research project. On ground of the free but rather coarse manner of painting, the coulour scheme which is atypical for Rembrandt and the weak execution of the shadow in the upper half of the face they suggest an attribution to an assistant, probably Govaert Flick, who painted it in Rembrandt's workshop in or soon after 1633 (Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings 1983-, vol. 2 (1986), no. C 56). However, this rejection was not generally accepted. Slatkes and Liedtke still regard the painting as an autopgraph work (Slatkes 1992, no. 248; Liedtke 1996, p. 43; Liedtke 2004, p. 65). In 2003 the attribution of the painting was reconsidered by the Rembrandt Research Project. They suggest that the stock of self-portraits that Rembrandt built up in his first Amsterdam years was surplus to requirement. Two of these remainders were transformed into self-portraits of Rembrandt at a later age, two others into tronies. The present painting belongs to this latter category, later altered into the tronie of a "landknecht". According to the RRP it is not entirely clear whether the transformation was effected by Rembrandt himself or by a member of the workshop. Claudia Laurenze-Landsberg and Katja Kleinert (research project Gemäldegalerie Berlin) have suggested that it is highly probable Rembrandt himself had done the initial design for the painting and was reworked by himself or a member of his workshop. They consider it quite probable that the revisions were executed by the same hand or at the very least within the same workshop (Laurenze-Landsberg/Keinert 2014).
Rejected attribution
possibly Govert Flinck
The attribution to Govaert Flick suggested by the members of the Rembrandt Research Project in 1986 has been accepted by the Gemäldegalerie until 1996. In 1999 this attribution was rejected (White e.a. 1999, no. 37).
Date
Exact or approximate dating of the described art work; the search parameters adopted for this art work in this database, are found in brackets.
between 1633 and 1636 (1632 - 1636)
Because of broad similarities to the self-portraits of 1633 and 1634 the present self-portrait has been created those years (Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings 1983-, vol. 2 (1986), no. C 56). According to Claudia Laurenze-Landsberg and Katja Kleinert (research project Gemäldegalerie Berlin) the painting must have been reworked after 1636. The painting "The standard bearer" (Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings 1982-, vol. 3 (1989), A 120), created by Rembrandt in 1636, has many similarities in motif to the Berlin painting. It is not unlikely that this painting served as a template for the reworking of the Berlin painting. Laurenze-Landsberg and Kleinert also suggest the painting had already been finished in its entirety in 1636. In the same year Govert Flinck painted "A young man with a feathered cap and gorget" (Sumowski 1983-1993, vol. 2 (1984), p. 1031). Flinck was working as a pupil in Rembrandt's workshop at that time and he may have therefore taken the version of the Berlin painting that is now visible as a template or as a source of inspiration for his own painting (Laurenze-Landsberg/Kleinert 2014).
Represented
IB number
Number related to the portrait iconography collection RKD.
115949
Identification based on
resemblance
Artistically related
Artistically related to other work
Such as a preparatory studie, comparable composition, other version, or copy of the artwork in this record.
  • used as model for
    Jakob Schlesinger
    oil on canvas, 48 x 37 cm, can be dated between 1840- February 1844, until 1891 in picture gallery Sanssouci, from 1929 in collection of Hohenzollern; current location unknown.

    One of the five copies Schlesinger made for Friedrich IV, who wanted to recover the original hanging in the picture gallery in Sanssouci Potsdam. The original painting was already in the Königliches Museum zu Berlin.

  • used as model for
    Anoniem
    oil on canvas, 55 x 47 cm, in 1883 in the inventory of Großherzogin Luise von Baden in Schloss Babelsberg (Bartoschek / Vogtherr 2004, p. 391, no. GK I 4681; it is possible this description refers to the other self-portrait in the collection of the Gemäldegalerie (cat. no. 810).

  • used as model for
    Anoniem
    oil on canvas, 55.8 x 46.9 cm, private collection Michael Whitney, New York

  • copied in print by
    Andreas Ludwig Krüger, Rembrandts 'Zelfportret met fluwelen baret en gouden ketting'
  • copied in print by
    William French
    steel engraving, circa 1855, with inscription "Museum in Berlin. / Rembrandt pinxt. / W. French sc"

    published in: A. Payne, Die Königlichen Museen in Berlin. Eine Auswahl der vorzüglichsten Kunstschätze der Malerei, Sculptur, und Architektur der norddeutschen Metropole, dargestellt in einer Reihe der ausgezeichnetsten Stahlstiche mit erläuterndem Texte, Leipzig / Dresden 1855, p. 159-164

  • copied in print by
    Carl Fischer
    lithograph with inscription "Nach d. Original lith. v. C. Fischer" and "Druck b. H. Delius (v. Aumont)" and "Des Künstlers eigenes Bildniss / von / Paul Rembrandt / (Gemäldegallerie des Königl. Museums in Berlin", 260 x 215 mm, The British Museum, inv. no. 1861,0518.1288

Provenance
Exhibitions and literature
Visual documentation
Technical documentation
The RKD manages a collection of technical documentation that has been given to us by external researchers and museums or which stems from the RKD's own research with infrared reflectography. Documentation can be accessed by appointment at the RKD. While not all technical documentation has been entered in the database at present, new data is added on a regular basis.
Creation date: 2000-10-06; Last modified date: 2022-09-28

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