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Maria de' Medici

vrouw / Italiaans, Frans
Nationaliteit/school
Italiaans, Frans
Geboren
Florence 1575-04-26
Overleden
Keulen 1642-07-03
Familierelaties
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daughter of Francesco I de 'Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and of Johanna of Austria; granddaughter of the Austrian emperor Ferdinand I of Habsburg; married December 17, 1600 to French King Henry IV; mother of Louis XIII and Gaston d'Orléans
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Biografische gegevens
Werkzaam in
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  • Saint-Dénis (Ile-de-France) 1600 - 1617
    married in Florence by proxy, she entered France in December 1600; on 13 May 1610 she was crowned queen, one day before the assassination of her husband: on 14 May 1610 she became regent for the minor king Louis XIII, till 1617. Her regency was troubeled from beginning to end, as she was never able to convince the French of her innocence of the king's murder. During her marriage she quarreled and intrigued continuously, mostly with her husband's mistresses, who she immedeately banished from court; as regent she mostly continued her husband's policies, adding however pro-Habsburg (Spanish) ones. In 1616 she added Armand Jean du Plessis (later Cardinal Richelieu) to her advisers.
  • Parijs
  • Blois 1617 - 1619-02
    When Louis XIII took over the reign, he banished his mother in 1617 to the castle of Blois, had her Italian advisers the Concini murdered and relegated Richelieu (temporarily) to his bishopric; Marie escaped from Blois in the night of 21/22 February 1619 and became the figurehead of a new aristocratic revolt headed by Louis's brother Gaston, Duke of Orléans (1608-1660) (Orléans inherited his mother's predeliction for intrigue, scheming till his death to Richelieu and Louis XIV).
  • Angers
    Richelieu reconciled the queen and the king however and allowed her a small court in Angers.
  • Parijs 1621 - 1630
    She resumed her place in the royal council in 1621. The portrait by Rubens was painted at this time. When Marie rebuilt the Luxembourg Palace in Paris, she added paintings by Rubens as part of the luxurious decoration [Marie de' Medici Cycle]; in November 1630, she tried in vain to displace Richelieu, who had became the king's first adviser.
  • Compiègne 1630
    She took refuge in Compiègne in 1630, from where she escaped to Brussels in 1631 and Amsterdam in 1638.
  • Brussel 1631
    Hebbelinck 2007
  • Den Haag 1638-08
  • Amsterdam 1638-09-01 - 1638-09-05
    Her Dutch visit was considered to be the recognition of the Republic as a seperate state; her presence however caused diplomatic stress with France (= Richelieu) where ever she went.
  • Londen (Engeland) 1638
    After the Republic she visited London, where her youngest daughter Henrietta Maria was queen. The visit was far from easy (troubles with her daughter, her son-in-law, financial difficulties: she was continuously short of money).
  • Keulen 1642
    Having to leave England due to the civil war, she went to Cologne, where she subsequently died, intriguing against Richelieu till the last. She was buried in the Abbeychurch of St. Denis, with the other kings and queens of France (her grave was destroyed in the French Revolution).
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Ingevoerd op: 2011-12-15; Laatste wijziging: 2020-08-07

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