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Rembrandt

Suzanna door de ouderlingen belaagd (Daniël 13:1-63), ca. 1635-1647; 1647 gedateerd
Berlin, Gemäldegalerie (Staatliche Museen zu [..]
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Object gegevens
Objectcategorie
schilderij
Drager/materiaal
paneel
The type of wood is identified as "peltogyne venosa" or purpleheart (see The Rembrandt Database: http://www.rembrandtdatabase.org/Rembrandt/painting/49190/susanna-harassed-by-the-elders/document/17977). In the mid-17th century, various types of South American wood were commonly used to make packing cases for sugar cones. The panel of "Susanna and the elders" was most probably part of such a crate (Klein 1988, p. 40-41). This would identify the holes along the top and bottom edges of the panel as peg holes, necessary for the crates's construction (Corpus of Rembrandt paintings 1982-, vol. 5 (2011), no. V I, p. 325).
Vorm/maten
liggende rechthoek 76,6 x 92,8 cm
Signatuur/opschrift
Informatie over de signatuur, datering, opschrift of merk op de voor- of achterzijde van het kunstwerk
  • gesigneerd en gedateerd rechtsonder: Rembrandt. f. .647
  • lakzegel op de achterzijde: Königliche Museen Berlin
    on the backside: red seal with the Prussian eagle and the inscription "Königliche Museen Berlin" [Royal Museums Berlin] (in use since the establishment of the royal museums in 1877, probably until nationalization in 1918)
  • etiket op de achterzijde: S.L. No. / M-96/The Metropolitan Museum of Art / LOAN EXHIBITION
    on the backside: pre-printed paper label with inscription: "S.L. No. / M-96?The Metropolitan Museum of Art/ LOAN EXHIBITION"
  • etiket op de achterzijde: TR 9006 / 67
    on the backside: rectangular label with printed red framing line, filled out with typewriter: "TR 9006 / 67"; Wiesbaden label
  • etiket op de achterzijde: 26
    on the backside: octagonal label with blue framing, handwriting in blue ink "26"; probably an exhibition label
  • etiket op de achterzijde: Zollamtlich abgefertigt/ZOLLAMT / WIESBADEN / HAUPTBAHNHOF
    on the backside: rectangular label, printed in green: "Zollamtlich abgefertigt"; a green printed line; a round stamp: "ZOLLAMT / WIESBADEN / HAUPTBAHNHOF" and a coat of arms with an animal (roaring lion?)
  • etiket op de achterzijde: 7 x > 4 cm
    on the backside: rectangular label with remnants of an inscription: "7 x > 4 cm"
  • etiket op de achterzijde
    on the backside: rectangular label with remnants of an inscription in red crayon
  • etiket op de achterzijde: > 4,2 x (?)
    on the backside: rectangular label with remnants of an inscription: "> 4,2 x (?)"
  • etiket op de achterzijde: W 234, Siemens II 144 mAs, 828 E, 2.4.32
    on the backside: a sketch of a square, in the upper left and upper right a smaller square and X-ray note: "W 234, Siemens II 144 mAs, 828 E, 2.4.32"
  • etiket op de achterzijde: RÖNTGENAUFNAHME/Prof. Wehlte, Berlin/28.1.41/m. 625 - 630, 37 kv, 80 mAsek
    on the backside: rectangular X-ray note, printed in red: RÖNTGENAUFNAHME, printed in black: Prof. Wehlte, Berlin, red stamp: 28.1.41, handwritten in black: m. 625 - 630, 37 kv, 80 mAsek
  • etiket op de achterzijde: Staatliche Museen Berlin – Gemäldegalerie / Inventar-Nr. / Katalog-Nr, [handwritten:] III / 373, 828 E, Susanna und d. beiden Alten
    on the backside: pre-printed rectangular inventory label: "Staatliche Museen Berlin – Gemäldegalerie / Inventar-Nr. / Katalog-Nr, [handwritten:] III / 373, 828 E, Susanna und d. beiden Alten"; in use 1918-1945
  • etiket op de achterzijde: STAATLICHE MUSEEN BERLIN / GEMÄLDEGALERIE KAT.-NR. [with typewriter]: 828 E, Rembrandt, Susanna und die Alten
    on the backside: pre-printed rectangular inventory label: "STAATLICHE MUSEEN BERLIN / GEMÄLDEGALERIE KAT.-NR. [with typewriter]: 828 E, Rembrandt, Susanna und die Alten"; in use 1918-1945
  • etiket op de achterzijde: Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz / GEMÄLDEGALERIE BERLIN / Kat. Nr. [with typewriter] 29 E, Rembrandt, Harmensz van Rijn, Susanna und die beiden Alten
    on the backside: pre-printed inventory label with framing and horizontal line: "Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz / GEMÄLDEGALERIE BERLIN / Kat. Nr. [with typewriter] 29 E, Rembrandt, Harmensz van Rijn, Susanna und die beiden Alten"; Dahlem, from 1990
Huidige toeschrijving
Rembrandt
Datering
Exacte of globale datering van het kunstwerk; de zoekmarges van het werk in deze database staan tussen haakjes.
ca. 1635-1647; 1647 gedateerd (1635 - 1647)
This painting has a complex genesis with radical changes in the composition. In themselves, radical changes do not necessarily indicate a long working process. However, there is an archival document , which implies that the painting was considered to be completed in or by 1642. In 1659 Adriaen Banck declared he bought a painting depicting the story of Susanna from Rembrandt in 1647. This statement was part of eleven other depositions, drawn up by the guardian of Titus van Rijn, Louis Crayers, to determine the size of the inheritance from Titus' mother Saskia van Uylenburgh who died in 1642 (Strauss/Van der Meulen, 1979, no. 1659/17). Because the other depositions concern paintings which were already finished in 1642, the present painting must have been completed in some way in that year. In the Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings is substantiated that Rembrandt started the painting c. 1638 (Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings, vol. 5 (2011). This date is based on a preliminary sketch, made by Rembrandt c. 1638, for the elder behind Susanna depicted in the first version of the painting. In this drawing, which is now in Melbourne, the elder wears a larger hat and his hand is placed before his nose. Traces of the first version of the elder are visible in the X-ray, as well as a blue sky and a large tree instead of the tower. Sluijter and more recently Katja Kleinert and Claudia Laurenze-Landsberg date the first stage of the painting somewhat earlier, around 1635; before Rembrandt’s painting of Susanna, which is now in The Hague (Sluijter 2006, p. 131-139; Bevers/Kleinert/Laurenze-Landsberg 2015, p. 13-35). In 1635/1636 the story of Susanna was a subject in Rembrandt's workshop, as seen in numerous depictions of her in drawings by his pupils. According to Kleinert and Laurenze-Landsberg it can be concluded that the first stage of the painting served as a example for the drawings of the pupils. After this first stage Rembrandt must have reworked the painting twice. A drawing attributed to Barent Fabritius after the Berlin painting represent the second stage of the painting, which shows , in comparison with the present painting, a slightly different composition and elements which Rembrandt eliminated before the final version (for example a swan in the pool). The reliability of this copy is confirmed by the X-ray of the painting (Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings 1982, vol. 5 (2011), no V I, fig. 2).This second stage is probably c. 1643. Probably Rembrandt made the final changes just before or in 1647, making use of a study of a seated female nude which is now in Berlin. Recently Kleinert and Laurenze-Landsberg discovered that Sir Joshua Reynolds, who owned the painting between 1769-1792, made significant changes to the painting (Bevers/Kleinert/Laurenze-Landsberg 2015, p, 63, fig. 6).
Artistiek verband
Artistiek verband met ander werk
Zoals een voorbereidende tekening, vergelijkbare compositie, andere versie, herhaling of kopie van het hier beschreven kunstwerk.
Herkomst
Tentoonstellingen en literatuur
Beelddocumentatie
Technische documentatie
Het RKD beheert een collectie technische documentatie die door externe onderzoekers en musea aan ons is overgedragen of voortkomt uit eigen onderzoek met infraroodreflectografie. Het materiaal waarvan hier de metadata zijn weergegeven, is op afspraak te raadplegen op het RKD. Vooralsnog is niet alle technische documentatie ingevoerd in de database. Regelmatig worden nieuwe gegevens toegevoegd.
Ingevoerd op: 2002-06-10; Laatste wijziging: 2019-10-18

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